For other English language qualifications we accept, please see our English language requirements webpages.
Culture and Psychiatric Diagnosis Cumulative cross-cultural research can help the clinician arrive at a comprehensive diagnosis of patients evaluated across the language and cultural barriers. Such patients could in theory present three different diagnostic pictures.
Alternatively, the patient may present with a syndrome with specific cultural features which warrant special evaluative care. Cultural Features of Major Psychiatric Diagnosis Schizophrenia The diagnosis of schizophrenia depends on the significant presence over a 1-month period of two out of five of the following symptoms: Social dysfunction is further defined as a significant erosion of work, interpersonal roles or self-care below the level of achievement prior to the onset of illness.
All these criteria are subject to attained distortion through the cultural lens. In some cultures eg, Mediterranean and Hispanic visual or auditory hallucinations of religious objects, persons, or theme, may be a component of certain The different aspects of biomedical therapies experiences or may appear as part of other disorders such as dissociative phenomena or psychomotor epilepsy.
Some care should be exercised while diagnosing delusional ideas. The boundaries between ideas, overvalued ideas, beliefs, and delusions are also heavily mediated by culture, especially around issues such as demonic possession and paranormal influences hexing, sorcery, witchcraft in general.
The articulation of language, sentence structure, and the logical order and focus of speech are also mediated by culture, educational level, and by perceived power differential between speakers.
The evaluation of affect another key criterion for a schizophrenia diagnosis is also complex, especially as it pertains to evaluating its congruence with mental content that is produced in a language that the clinician may not understand.
Intensity and range of affect are also heavily mediated by culture and by the authority differentials in the therapeutic relationship. Depression In the case of depression, culture can influence the prevalence rates, subjective experience of depression, and preferred channel for the expression of emotions.
Symptoms such as sadness, guilt, and other psychological representations of the depressive experience may not be reported spontaneously during the clinical interview, and its elicitation may need a more active inquiry from the clinician than is the norm when interviewing patients from their own ethnic group.
Anxiety The experience of anxiety may also be culturally mediated. As in the case of depression, the somatic expression palpitations, tachycardia, fainting sensations is emphasized in many cultures over the psychic content.
The situational triggers for some episodes of anxiety, including panic, are also often culturally mediated. Culture-Bound Syndromes In evaluating a patient to establish a differential diagnosis for a possible culture-bound syndrome, the clinician should consider the following. First, reflect on the cultural assumptions under which the Western biomedical model of diagnosis and treatment operates.
A dose of cultural humility is the optimum result of such reflection. Second, as psychiatric disorders, whatever their biologic determinants, usually find expressions through ideas, beliefs, and behavior, all societies have found ways to separate the normal from the abnormal.
They all devise rules to attribute causality and motivation to such behaviors. Third, be alert to the presence of symptoms such as unusual forms of anxiety, apathy, and significant withdrawal; sudden outbursts of angry and difficult to explain aggressive behavior; bizarre and unconventional motor behaviors such as trance-like taking off of clothes, thrashing about, shouting swearing ; prominent dissociation; sleep problems with parasomnias; and many others.
Amok A dissociative episode characterized by a period of brooding followed by an outburst of violent, aggressive, or homicidal behavior directed at people and objects. The episode tends to be precipitated by a perceived slight or insult and seems to be prevalent among men.
The episode is often accompanied by persecutory ideas, automatism, amnesia, exhaustion, and return to a premorbid state after the episode. Some instances of amok may occur during a brief psychotic episode or constitute the onset or exacerbation of a chronic psychotic process.
Severe bereavement and serious interpersonal results have been noted as precipitants. Ataque de Nervios Ataque de nervios is an idiom of distress that is principally reported among Latinos from the Caribbean but recognized among many Latin American and Latin Mediterranean groups.
Commonly reported symptoms include uncontrollable shouting, attacks of crying, trembling, heat in the chest rising into the head, and verbal or physical aggression. Dissociative experiences, seizure-like or fainting episodes, and suicidal gestures are prominent in some attacks but absent in others.
A general feature of an ataque de nervios is a sense of being out of control. Ataques de nervios frequently occur as a direct result of a stressful event relating to the family eg, news of the death of a close relative, a separation or divorce from a spouse, conflicts with a spouse or children, witnessing an accident.
This French term refers to a sudden outburst of agitated and aggressive behavior, marked confusion, and psychomotor excitement. It may sometimes be accompanied by visual and auditory hallucinations or paranoid ideation.
These episodes may resemble an episode of brief psychotic disorder and need careful differential diagnosis. Brain Fag Brain fag is a term initially used in West Africa to refer to a condition experienced by high school or university students in response to the challenges of schooling.
Symptoms include difficulties in concentrating, remembering, and thinking. Students often state that their brains are fatigued. Additional somatic symptoms are usually centered around the head and neck and include pain, pressure or tightness, blurring of vision, heat, or burning.
Brain tiredness or fatigue from too much thinking is an idiom of distress in many cultures and resulting syndromes can resemble certain anxiety, depression, and somatoform disorders. Dhat Dhat is a folk diagnostic term used in India to refer to severe anxiety and hypochrondriacal concerns associated with the discharge of semen, whitish discoloration of the urine, and feelings of weakness and exhaustion.
They are characterized by a sudden collapse, which sometimes occurs without warning but sometimes is preceded by feelings of dizziness. The person usually hears and understands what is occurring around him or her but feels powerless to move.Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences, biomedical research, genetics, and medical technology to diagnose, treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery, but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy, external splints and traction, medical devices, biologics, and ionizing radiation.
Types of Biomedical Therapy. Pharmacotherapy (Medication) The s and s were further marked by a better understanding of the synaptic aspects of the action mechanisms of drugs. However, the model has its critics—notably, Joanna Moncrieff and the Critical Psychiatry Network.
Different disorders respond to drug therapy differently. Chapter 15 Psych. STUDY. PLAY. Therapies directed at changing disordered behavior are referred to as a) action therapies. b) insight therapies. c) biomedical therapies.
d) relationship therapies. a Action therapy emphasizes changing behavior, whereas insight therapy emphasizes c An eclectic view is one that combines a number of different.
Non-Medical Reasons for the Use of Ayurvedic Therapies by PLWHA. Based on the comprehensive review of the literature, HIV-positive patients seem to seek out Ayurveda and other ISM for a diversity of considerations ranging from cost and accessibility to perceived efficacy.
Legal Aspects of Psychological Disorders; Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior; Biomedical therapies are physiological interventions that focus on the reduction of symptoms associated with psychological disorders.
Three procedures used are drug therapies, electroconvulsive (shock) treatment, and psychosurgery. More recently, different and.
Different approaches to psychotherapy. Psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapies. This approach focuses on changing problematic behaviors, feelings, and thoughts by discovering their unconscious meanings and motivations.
Instead, they blend elements from different approaches and tailor their treatment according to each client's needs.