Origins[ edit ] Alexander Hamiltonauthor of the majority of The Federalist Papers The Federal Convention sent the proposed Constitution to the Confederation Congress, which in turn submitted it to the states for ratification at the end of September On September 27,"Cato" first appeared in the New York press criticizing the proposition; "Brutus" followed on October 18, In response, Alexander Hamilton decided to launch a measured defense and extensive explanation of the proposed Constitution to the people of the state of New York.
Federalism by John Kincaid Federalism is essentially a system of voluntary self-rule and shared rule. A covenant signifies a binding partnership among co-equals in which the parties to the covenant retain their individual identity and integrity while creating a new entity, such as a family or a body politic, that has its own identity and integrity as well.
A covenant also signifies a morally binding commitment in which the partners behave toward each other in accord with the spirit of the law rather than merely the letter of the law. Multi-level Governance by Michael Stein Multi-level Governance is a concept developed by academics and policy-makers in the late s and early s in conjunction with the emergence of a more economically and politically integrated European Union.
It was initially intended to describe a broadening of the concept of federalism in a vertical and territorial sense to include the intergovernmental policy-making structures of more than two levels of government, but no more than five: In recent years, however, the concept has also been extended horizontally and functionally to encompass non-governmental and non-statist entities such as private sector interest groups and non-profit organizations and charitable organizations whose role in the international policy-making process is increasing with economic globalization.
These multi-level governance structures tend to be more ephemeral and flexible in nature, and more numerous and fragmented than other intergovernmental policy-making structures Hooghe and Marks In contrast to that in traditional Anglo-American federalism, the pattern of intergovernmental relations in the European Union reflects the features of an overlapping, interlocking, and cooperative type of federalism that is generally identified with a distinct continental European tradition of federalism.
But many proponents of multi-level governance argue that there are good grounds today for applying this concept analytically to intergovernmental policy-making structures outside the European Union, particularly to the increasingly important supranational and local governance structures in politically decentralized countries.
There is currently no one generally accepted definition of multi-level governance. Among common strands, however, are the following: Among the major criticisms of the concept are: Decentralization by Arthur Benz The concept of decentralization usually refers to multilevel structures of government or administration.
It results from re allocation of power to elect or denominate policymakers, of legislative or administrative competences or of fiscal resources from higher to lower levels. Given interdependencies between levels, decentralization is to be regarded as a relational concept.
Regardless of its extent, decentralization affects governance and democratic legitimacy. For this reason, it is not only a matter of multilevel power games but also contested for normative reasons. In political theory and practice, decentralization is now mostly regarded as a preferable alternative to centralization.
One reason for decentralization is derived from the principle of subsidiarity. Rooted in the political philosophy of reformed Protestantism in the early 17th century and in social theory of the Catholic Church of the 19th century, it defends the priority of small social communities against large societies and a centralized, bureaucratic state.
Moreover, decentralization is said to improve democracy. If government is closer to the people, communication between citizens and their representatives should be more effective and individual preferences should have better chances to be considered in political decisions.
Decentralised structures can reflect plurality and regional differentiation of societal interests. Liberalist theories prefer decentralization as a device against dictatorship either of autocrats or of majorities. Economic theories stipulate that decentralization fosters efficiency of policy making.
If citizens have an opportunity to choose between alternative supplies of public goods or services provided by lower-level governments demanding different tax burdens, they force governments competing for taxpayers to make every effort to find an optimal ratio of costs and benefits.FAITH | LEARNING | COMMUNITY.
In the way of Jesus, St Joseph’s Catholic High School aspires to respect and celebrate the dignity of all. Inspired by the life of St Joseph, the school promotes a culture of faith, justice and service. Context: The main aim of the partnership is to spread greater awareness about key environmental challenges that are facing the country and highlight alternate and more sustainable solutions.
Federalism is prominent in the governing structures of many current countries, including the United States, India, Belgium and Brazil.
The United States is a federal system because it has government at the state level that has its own responsibilities to the citizens and a government at the national level that has a different set of. UW BOTHELL INTERDISCIPLINARY ARTS & SCI - BOTHELL INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDIES Detailed course offerings (Time Schedule) are available for.
Autumn Quarter ; Winter Quarter ; BIS Digital Thinking (5) QSR Introduces the fundamental concepts behind computing and computational thinking including logical reasoning; problem solving, data representation; abstraction; .
FEDERALISM AND ETHNIC VIOLENCE IN NIGERIA: PAST AND PRESENT ISSUES Doyin Hassan The paper examines ethnic violence in Nigeria: current problems and future prospects. It observes that the Nigerian federation being a pluralistic and extensively heterogeneous one is The controversy over the type of federalism the Nigerian state .
What Is Federalism. Many countries are now moving away from other forms of government and embracing federalism.
In my opinion, federal governments work well and bring about development. The best example of a country that has adopted federalism is the United States. Federalism is when power is subdivided into units.