Askold Krushelnycky April 4 The small spaces are jammed with bunk beds, weapons, food and the occasional stray cat or dog. When the fighting started last spring, Ukraine had approximately 4, combat-ready troops, serving in a military debilitated by corruption.
A large number of French and British troops resting after digging trenches on Pilckem Ridge, 19th August Men of the 51st Division digging in near Locon, 10 April IWM There were two main ways to dig a trench. Firstly there was entrenchment, which was the faster method, allowing many soldiers equipped with their shovels and picks to dig a large portion of trench at once.
The soldiers stood in a line on the surface and dug. However, this left the diggers exposed to all of the dangers that the trenches were supposed to protect against. So entrenchment had to take place either in a rear area where diggers were not as vulnerable, or at night.
British guidelines for trench construction state that it took men approximately 6 hours to dig yards of a front-line trench approx. The other option was sapping, where a trench was extended by digging at the end face.
It was a much safer option, but took more time, as only one or two men could fit in the area to dig. The men hid in a small hole called a scrape and gradually extended it without exposing themselves to the enemy.
Tunnelling was similar to sapping but an overhead section was left in place until the trench was complete. Trench design varied depending on the local conditions. British troops taking up timber for a trench support at Ploegsteert, March IWM The floor of the trench had to slope to a gutter which ran into soak- away pits lined with stones to prevent the trench getting flooded and wooden planking, referred to as duckboard, was put on the floor to prevent men from walking in mud.
Some kind of floor should be provided for the trenches. The simplest and best are made the following way: Take two seven-inch boards about ten feet in length, nail them together to make a fourteen-inch plank, and then cover the whole with fairly fine chicken wire. Place these boards on the ground with the side on which the wires are joined downwards.
They keep the feet from slipping, are easily cleaned by being upended when they are dry, and allow the space under them to be reached easily to pick up scraps of food, etc.
There is nothing more heart breaking than having to pursue your weary course for miles, sometimes, up trenches with slippery sides and sloping, wet, treacherous bottoms. IWM The trenches were built in long straight lines but the paths inside were laid out as a zig-zag; this was to prevent an enemy who had entered the trench from firing along its whole length.
The alcoves were called firebays and the buttresses were called traverses. They are seldom roofed over. Each little room is connected to the ones on either side by a trench that runs behind the four-feet square traverse that is of solid earth and which serves the purpose of localising the effect of shells, bombs, etc.
Sometimes according to the lay of the land, sometimes according to the opinions, whims or fancies of the regiments making them, but the following dimensions should be kept in mind, and it will be found that they show the average of the whole general line of the Western Front.
Firebays generally are from 12 to 18 feet long defendable by 4 to 6 men but accommodating 8 to 12 when necessary plus a two foot covered sentry box recessed into the traverse and giving room for one more man; this depending entirely on the energy and initiative of the men occupying the station.
The depth of the trenches also varies, for the same reasons that cause the width to vary.
Recesses should also be dug at various and favourable places for the storing of ammunition and bombs. IWM Types of Trench. Contrary to common belief not all the men in trenches were on the front line.
Soldiers and supplies moved backwards and forwards along the communications trenches. But support and reserve lines as well must be constructed and many communicating trenches. Support lines were usually dug at a distance of thirty to eighty yards from the firing line. In them we kept a few men to be used in case of emergency.
This line was an exact duplicate of the front line and was intended to be used in case we were pushed back. The reserve line was about five to eight hundred yards back from the front line and was not brought to any great degree of completion.
Interspersed between these three lines were many redoubts, or especially strong points containing machine guns, etc. All these lines had to be linked up by communicating trenches, which started about a mile in the rear of the front line and went up in zigzag lines to the latter position, crossing the other trenches on their way.Unsurprisingly, training camps included a lot of trench warfare.
America was a late entrant to the war and knew the kind of combat it would face. Soldiers make their way through training trenches. Trench warfare, warfare in which opposing armed forces attack, counterattack, and defend from relatively permanent systems of trenches dug into the ground.
The opposing systems of . NEW BOOKS for WATCH THIS SPACE!!! NEW BOOK ON UNIFORMS. Undress and Mess Dress Uniforms of The Yeomanry. Cavalry. The First World War has become a byword for slaughter on an unimaginable scale.
It changed the face of war forever. It was a war on an industrial scale where the railway and factory created a . Within a few months of the start of hostilities all of the Western Front was caught in a stalemate, as the dreaded "trench warfare" soon took over the battlefield.
This is a list of words, terms, concepts, and slogans that were have been or are used by the German military. Ranks and translations of nicknames for vehicles are included.